The Toplița, Borsec and Tulgheș country
The Borsec-Tulgheș district including the northern edge of the historical Tinutul Gheorgheniului constitutes the northernmost region of Harghita county and of the historical Szeklerland at the same time. The microregion situated to the east of the main watershed of the Carpathians, on the area of the River Tarnava Mica, includes the Bilbor and the Borsec Basins together with their surrounding mountains. The country borders on Moldova in the Tulgheș Pass, while from Transylvania it can be best approached through Toplița. (The roads from Ditrau to Tulgheș and to Borsec, although they lead through a beautiful country, are not recommended because of their poor quality). The area of the region is 649 km2 and it has a population of 11,020 people (1996). Administratively, it consists of Borsec town and three communes (Bilbor, Corbu, Tulgheș). We also mention Toplita and Galautas here as they have never belonged to Gheorgheni but rather to this country, at least from ethnographical point of view. The region has a mixed population of Magyars and Romanians.
There are several mineral water categories in the water-basin of the River Tarnava Mica. Thus, in the Bilbor Basin, the majority of the springs drains the mineral water accumulated in the granular limestone. The Borsec Basin is famous for its great quantity carbonic mineral water springing on the edge of the dolomite lime deposit. Only a few springs come to the surface from the clefts of the chrystaline schists. In the country, in the basins of the Putna and Tarnava Mica rivers springs coming to the surface from both clefts and deposits can be noticed.
The majority of the settlements of the Borsec-Tulgheș country is situated next to National Road 15 with international transit traffic, while the smaller settlements can be well approached by destination traffic. The varied microregion rich in natural beauty, the gorge and the pine forests assure favourable conditions for both excursion and spa tourism. The forest plant communities and the country of the aboundant mineral water springs require increased protection. Readiness to receive visitors here can also be increased with the development of the touristic background branch.